Power engineers and engineers of many enterprises and organizations do not think about whether the standards of illumination are observed in their buildings and premises. Their peace of mind is usually violated by the labor protection commission, who comes to inspect all the workplaces and to measure the illumination with a certified luximeter. Then the measured values are compared with the tabulated ones, and if the illumination is less than the norm, then usually a prescription is issued to increase it to the norm.
Another situation is also possible, when it is necessary to replace outdated LED light fixtures and it is necessary to determine what illumination should be obtained as a result. In this case, the engineers of the supplier company can help you, because they know these values by heart. However, you should also know these values to make a preliminary TOR for the supplier or to check the correctness of the choice of fixtures. In either case, you need to have this document with a table of the norms of illumination at hand.
The values of illumination standards in many industrial, office and other premises are described in detail in TKP 45-2.04-153 “Natural and artificial lighting”. Also in this document are references to some other TKP and GOSTs. The main table with the values of illumination is given in Appendix C and is divided into objects and types of premises. In addition, in this application there is information about the height of the working plane and the limiting values of the ripple coefficient.
The norms of illumination
of Belarus are described
in TCH 45-2.04-153
How correctly apply the standards of illumination?
Trusting the well-known proverbial saying “the law is like a drawbar – how you turn, and it turned out,” you can interpret the values of illumination in your favor. In Tables C.1 and D.1 the minimum reference values are indicated, and on the object you can set any value of illumination. This means that if the illumination of the working surface is accepted by 150 lux for these main tables and driveways of the warehouses, then you have the right to install more lamps and make the illumination 250 lux.
Less than 150 lux can not be installed already, otherwise the commission will have to come up with excuses or say that this is not for example the main thoroughfare, but something else. Pay attention to the fact that the illumination at the walls or along the edges of the aisles and driveways always turns out to be less than in the center. This can be used by the inspectors who came for sure to get a fine from you. Install in these places more lamps to eliminate this unevenness.
Also, the pulsation coefficient is an important indicator in Tables C.1, D.1. Now the majority of modern drivers allow to reduce pulsations of a light stream to 1% and more low that very favorably affects vision of employees. This indicator is especially important in rooms where there are rotating machines or equipment with rotating parts (milling, lathes, CNC equipment and others). If there is a light pulsation, a stroboscopic effect may occur, which can cause you huge problems.
The stroboscopic effect occurs when the flicker frequency of the light source coincides with the frequency of rotation of the equipment or multiples thereof. For example, the pulsation frequency of fluorescent luminaires with a conventional ballast is 50 Hz. If the spindle of the machine rotates at a frequency of a multiple of 50 Hz, it may appear to the worker for a while to remain stationary and he may try to change the part or reach the forbidden area of the machine, assuming the machine is stopped.
Imagine a working noisy shop, in which employees put on headphones, and on the machines there are no signal lights that should help workers determine whether the machines are on or not. In the presence of strong pulsations in inexpensive LED fixtures purchased in the tender (most often it can be Belarusian lamps assembled from inexpensive Russian-Chinese components), a stroboscopic effect may occur, and an employee will suffer an industrial accident.
At present, many devices for measuring light illumination also measure the pulsation coefficient of the light flux. They cost slightly more expensive, and this option is much more convenient and cheaper than buying a separate pulse meter. For a long time TKA-PKM 08 is on the list of some of the most popular luxmeters-pulmeters. It is listed in the register of measuring instruments and can be verified in any certified center. We advise you to immediately buy the device with verification.
How to use tables from TKP 45-2.04-153?
In order to correctly use the table, you must first select the type of room from the list. Next, you need to pay attention to whether there are windows in the selected room. If there are windows, then we need to take into account also natural illumination, which in the daytime is summed up with artificial illumination, and the ratio of these illuminances is regulated by the natural light factor of KEO. If there are no windows, then you should focus only on the norms of artificial lighting.
For example, we need to replace the fixtures in the warehouse storage in the cargo expedition area with the windows in the walls. We open tables C.1 or D.1, we find the category “Warehouses” and look for “Shelving storage” in it (list 4 in the current edition of the TPK). In this line we see that for our case of combined lighting two values are suitable: 200 lux only for artificial lighting (measured without taking light from windows in the dark) and 400 lux for total illumination from luminaires and windows.
Next, we select the number and power of the fixtures in the DiaLux program. Our task is to select the arrangement of the luminaires, so that, taking into account the light margin factor, which is usually used in the range 0.7-0.8, the illumination should be no less than the normalized values. Then we add natural light and check whether the value obtained corresponds to the norm. After choosing the number and power of the fixtures, we check the indicator of blindness, and if all is well, it is ready.
In addition to useful tables C.1 and D.1, where the illumination standards are described, in TKP 45-2.04-153 there are still many important tables that need to be considered when replacing lighting. Table 3 will help you determine the safety factor that you need to take to select the fixtures. When we expect illumination of new lamps, we must take into account that they will eventually become dusty and pollute. The safety factor takes into account how much lamps can become polluted after one year and lose the light flux.
It is worth noting that DiaLux uses the safety factor in fractions of a unit, that is, if the luminary after a year loses due to pollution of 20% of the original brightness, then in Dialuks it is necessary to take the value of 0.8. Table 3 shows the opposite values, that is, instead of 0.8 there will be 1.25. Get this value easily: 1/0.8 = 1.25, respectively, in the same way you can get the opposite value for DiaLux. Look at the table, find Kzap = 1.6, and in DiaLux substitute 1/1.6 = 0.625 (lamp will keep 62.5% of the original brightness).
Special attention should be paid to Table 13, which lists the standards of illumination for roads, highways of various occupancy. In addition to these values in the TKP text, you will find other features of designing road lighting, for example, uneven lighting of the roadway, which should not exceed 1:2 (we take the illumination value between the supports and under the luminaires and divide one into the second). In addition, for road lighting, the indicator of blindness is important, which should not exceed the normative values.
Who checks the standards of illumination?
The standards for workplace lighting are checked by the labor protection commission or other certified organization, which you yourself will invite for such verification. It is important that the organization has an accreditation certificate for the relevant type of work. In our case, it is important to measure natural and artificial illumination, the ripple coefficient, the glare factor, and also, for high-precision work, you can order a measurement of the color rendering index (for example, when working with printing or paints).
It is not necessary to measure the correlated color temperature, as this is usually done by the luminaires manufacturer and does not affect the productivity of the personnel and its health. In the end, we got a whole list of items that are important to observe, and a bunch of numbers that need to be met. And if it does not work out, pay fines until you eliminate the deficiencies. This sounds strictly and it may seem that we, as manufacturers of LED lighting fixtures, will lobby this approach and organize checks, but this is not so.
We, for our part, will provide advice to any client who needs to replace his outdated lighting with a new one. In addition, we can perform any lighting calculations on the client’s request without binding to our equipment with payment for the time of the engineer’s work, and you can be sure that these calculations will be 100% true even after a year of your new fixtures. I note that properly selected lamps will save you a significant part of the costs in the future.
Under the links given below, you can get a table of illumination values for industrial premises, as well as TKP 45-2.04-153, in which you can find all the regulatory requirements for lighting in almost any buildings and structures, except for specific ones. This standard does not describe the standards of illumination for sports facilities, military, secret and other objects of increased danger or significance. However, you can specify such details from our specialists.